Industries and Occupations with High Blood Leads (ug/dl)
Gleaned from Abstracts in NIOSHTIC
SIC Year Activity Workers Blood Lead
  1976 storage tank manuf. and repair, machine shop work, metal surface treating, paint manuf., spray painting, railroad machine shop and storage battery repair (Finland studies of 2,209 lead workers)   >70
  1984 33 occupations (1505 New Zealand workers); highest blood leads in painters spraying glass or metal and workers making lead products such as lead headed nails; no or low risk in electroplaters, electronic or jewelry assemblers and armature winders    
  1987 MMWR report of 4 states with blood lead surveillance: 524 workers >50; lead smelting, brass foundries, battery manuf., construction, ceramics manuf., plastics production, stained-glass window production, ammunition manuf., and firing ranges    
  1987 Texas workers with blood lead > 40: lead storage batteries, cable and wire products, ammunition, pipes, pewter, lead glazed pottery, crystal glass, pigments, gasoline antiknock additives, weather resistant coatings, scrap operations, grinding operations, repair or demolition of lead painted steel, automobile radiator repair shops and firing instructors at indoor firing ranges    
  1990 3077 blood leads over 8 months in California: 25% of 355 workers > 40; secondary lead smelting, battery manuf., brass, lead or copper foundries accounted for 55% of all reports; also construction (demolition & paint stripping), radiator repair, pottery, ceramics manuf., gun firing ranges    
  1998 Taiwan blood lead surveillance 1994-95; industries with highest levels: chemical products manuf., battery recycling and production, basic chemicals manuf., ship building and repair, plastic products manuf.    
1041 1988 fire assays on ore samples; Pb in air 100 in furnace room, 46 in office    
1311 1995 cut and connect oil pipeline painted with lead paint using acetylene torch 1 chelated
1521 1963 decorative and house painters 107 normal
1521 1995 N. Carolina house painters 127 7
1521 1997 NIOSH ABLES 4th quarter 1996: 4 cases of occupational lead poisoning in residential painters removing lead paint without PPE    
1622 1996 abrasive blasting of a steel bridge during paint removal 5 of 22 >50
1622 1997 construction workers renovating a previously deleaded bridge 3 of 44 >40
1795 1977 metal burners engaged in dismantling a lead coated iron roof 12 > 118
1795 1988 metal cutters dismantling a water filtration facility (lead-based paint) 47 59
1795 1994 demolition of 2 tenement buildings (built pre-war) in the Bronx, NY 2 21
2752 1961 5 printing works in Milan; 2 cases of mild saturnism 100  
2752 1982 Newspaper printing workers (Indonesian study of 2000 lead workers)   < 30
2752 1987 printers in Baghdad 97 24
2810 1982 Coatings and Color Divisions; highest blood leads in smelter operators in the Coatings Division 23/109 >40
2816 1990 employed by company that formulates color concentrates for plastics 1 52
2821 1975 PVC (polyvinyl chloride) factories 152 37 (median)
2869 1989 production workers manuf. lead sulfate and lead stearate (lead-based stabilizers used in manuf. of PVC)   48
3069 1974 auto tire and rubber hose factory ? up to 50
3069 1976 rubber hose ? 32
3079 1974 PVC manuf. (Finland studies of 2,209 lead workers)   37
3079 1982 using stabilizers in PVC manuf. ? 40-49 (ave.)
3079 1982 PVC and plastics (Indonesian study of 2000 lead workers)   70
3079 1987 manuf. PVC pipes 23 33-105
3079 1988 manuf. PVC materials with lead-based stabilizers 49 49
3079 1988 producing lead pipe and lead plate in a PVC plant 77 16-96
3211 1978 stained glass window production 2 normal
3211 1980 professional stained glass workers 12 increased
3229 1974 crystal glass (Finland studies of 2,209 lead workers)   41
3229 1995 workers in lead-colored glass factory in Beijing for 2 to 17 years 36 26-79
3231 1984 cutting, grinding and polishing crystal into various art objects   29
3231 1991 cutting, grinding and polishing crystal into various art objects   12
3262 1980 workers in 4 ceramics factories in Italy: high blood levels in some even after all feasible factory improvements; reduction of lead in raw materials recommended;    
3262 1980 8 ceramics factories in Italy: glazing, kiln, various operations, decorators and packers; blood lead levels: glazing (75), kiln (64), packing (44)    
3262 1985 Italian ceramics factories; 63% in one factory >40    
3269 1991 pottery artist 1 high
3269 1994 cloisonne workers, 11 glaze workers and 59 ware workers 19 of 49 >60
3284 1986 manuf. electrical components using fritted glass 34 47 (median)
3321 1974 foundry (Finland studies of 2,209 lead workers)   53
3332 1982 secondary lead smelting workers (Indonesian study of 2000 lead workers)   70
3341 1974 lead scrap smelting (Finland studies of 2,209 lead workers)   70
3357 1980 cable production workers 45 37
3443 1991 lined steel tanks with lead 2 >50
3443 1991 relined steel tanks with lead   32
3443 1992 lining steel tanks with lead sheets 22 4-38
3478 1967 jewelery enamellers using lead-borosilicate enamel frits 3 64-94
3491 1990 manuf. precision valves: Pb air from 32 to 120 ug/m3   normal
3499 1987 lead medallion production: highest air levels from grinding and buffing 1 high
3523 1980 Steiger Tractor, Inc; Pb air "none detected" to 1.9 mg/m3    
3559 1977 manuf. of lead anodes 12 high
3661 1978 underground repairing of old telephone cables; Pb air <200mg/m3    
3679 1994 manuf electronic components at United Seal Co. 3 of 7 >25
3691 1974 storage battery manuf. (Finland studies of 2,209 lead workers)   66
3691 1982 battery manuf. (Indonesian study of 2000 lead workers)   52
3691 1996 lead battery manuf 72 48
3714 1982 automobile disk process workers (Indonesian study of 2000 lead workers)   35
3731 1974 shipbreaking (Finland studies of 2,209 lead workers)   49
3911 1983 costume jewelry industry: excessive exposure to lead in casting processes    
3914 1976 factory manuf. pewter goods: 26 of 50 workers had signs of lead poisoning    
4813 1980 survey of 90 telephone cable splicers 5 of 90 >40
4813 1980 telephone splicers 90 28
4841 1992 soldering cable TV converter boxes—airborne lead below detection level    
4911 1982 splicing and soldering workers (Indonesian study of 2000 lead workers)   27
4911 1994 habitually chewing the plastic coating of electric wires; employed assembling electric connections in new buildings 1 high; chelated
4911 1996 5 worksites: telephone cable strippers replacing lead sheathed telephone cable with fiber optics some > 100
5093 1996 dismantling/cutting (acetylene torch) of automobiles at a salvage facility 8 8-56
7539 1974 car radiator repair (Finland studies of 2,209 lead workers)   38
7539 1987 24 radiator repair shops 29 of 75 >40
7539 1991 radiator repair (ave. of 8-10 per day, 15 per day in peak season; installation of exhaust hood reduced Pb in air from 193 to 25 ug/m3    
7539 1993 3 radiator repair shops in Cincinnati: Pb in air below PEL in 2 and averaged above 200 ug/m3 in 3rd shop    
7539 1997 42 radiator repair shops in Colorado; 22% of workers tested had blood lead levels > 40    
7692 1985 soldering seams of cars   high
9221 1989 cadets firing nonjacketed lead bullets in covered outdoor firing range   5-26
9221 1990 covered outdoor firing range—Pb in air: nonjacketed lead bullets 128 ug/m3; copper jacketed bullets 9.5 ug/m3    
9221 1992 instructors at indoor shooting galleries in NYC 37 >40
9221 1994 6 target shooting clubs in New Zealand; shooters averaged 70 min/wk for 6 months when blood lead samples obtained   55

Also see Table 2.5 in NIOSH HHE Final Reports with BLL Data, 1978-1995.

Pb: Jobs ] [ Pb: Reports ]

  Revised February 08, 2004

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