Chemicals reported to induce methemoglobinemia in experimental animals or in humans after ingestion, intravenous administration or exposure following a chemical accident

These chemicals are not likely to cause clinically significant methemoglobinemia in the occupational setting. However, the detection of elevated blood levels of methemoglobin could be useful in some clinical or industrial hygiene settings as an indicator of exposure. The biological exposure index (BEI) for methemoglobin inducers is 1.5% of hemoglobin, measured during or at the end of the shift. "BEIs represent the levels of determinants which are most likely to be observed in specimens collected from a healthy worker who has been exposed to chemicals to the same extent as a worker with inhalation exposure to the TLV." (p. 55, 1996 TLVs and BEIs, ACGIH)

Table 2--Industrial Chemicals: Methemoglobinemia May Be a Secondary Toxic Effect


Agent Name


Alternate Name

Metals Copper & compounds varies  
Metals Silver & soluble compounds varies  
Esters Methyl formate 107-31-3 Formic acid, methyl ester
Herbicides, Nitroaromatic Dinitro-o-cresol 534-52-1 Dinitro-ortho-cresol
Herbicides, Nitroaromatic Dinitrophenol 25550-58-7  
Herbicides, Other Metolachlor 51218-45-2  
Herbicides, Other Monolinuron 1746-81-2  
Herbicides, Other Monuron 150-68-5  
Herbicides, Other Propanil 709-98-8  
Other Insecticides Chlordimeform 6164-98-3  
Hydrides Arsine 7784-42-1  
Toxic Gases & Vapors 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine 57-14-7  
Toxic Gases & Vapors 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine 540-73-8  
Toxic Gases & Vapors Methyl mercaptan 74-93-1 Methanethiol
Toxic Gases & Vapors Methylhydrazine 60-34-4  
Toxic Gases & Vapors Tetranitromethane 509-14-8  
Oxidizers Perchloryl fluoride 7616-94-6  
Amines, Aromatic 2-Aminophenol 95-55-6  
Amines, Aromatic 4-Aminophenol 123-30-8 p-Aminophenol
Amines, Aromatic alpha-Naphthylamine 134-32-7 1-Naphthylamine
Amines, Aromatic Benzidine 92-87-5  
Amines, Aromatic beta-Naphthylamine 91-59-8 2-Naphthylamine
Amines, Aromatic Dapsone 80-08-0 4,4'-Sulfonyldianiline
Amines, Aromatic o-Anisidine 90-04-0  
Amines, Aromatic p-Anisidine 104-94-9  
Amines, Aromatic p-Phenylene diamine 106-50-3  
Amines, Heterocyclic Cyclohexylamine 108-91-8  
Hydrazines 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine 122-66-7  
Hydrazines Hydrazine 302-01-2  
Hydrazines Phenylhydrazine 100-63-0  
Nitrates, Aliphatic Ethylene glycol dinitrate 628-96-6  
Nitrates, Aliphatic Nitroglycerin 55-63-0  
Nitrates, Aliphatic Pentaerythritol tetranitrate 78-11-5  
Nitros, Aliphatic 2-Nitropropane 79-46-9  
Nitros, Aromatic 2-Nitrophenol 88-75-5  
Nitros, Aromatic 4-Nitrophenol 100-02-7  
Nitros, Aromatic 5-Nitro-o-toluidine 99-55-8  
Nitros, Aromatic Dinitolmide 148-01-6 3,5-Dinitro-o-toluamide
Other Aromatics 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene 119-64-2 Tetralin
Other Aromatics Methylene blue 61-73-4  
Inorganic Compounds Ammonium nitrate 6484-52-2  
Inorganic Compounds Chloramide 10599-90-3  
Inorganic Compounds CHLORATES   CLASS
Inorganic Compounds Hydroxylamine 7803-49-8  
Inorganic Compounds NITRATES and NITRITES   CLASS
Inorganic Compounds PERCHLORATES   CLASS
Other Organic Compounds Naphthalene 91-20-3  
Other Organic Compounds Otto fuel 106602-80-6  
Peroxides Cyclohexanone peroxide    
Phenols Catechol 120-80-9 Pyrocatechol
Phenols Cresol, all isomers 1319-77-3  
Phenols Hydroquinone 123-31-9 Dihydroxybenzene
Phenols Phenol 108-95-2  
Phenols Pyrogallol 87-66-1  
Phenols Resorcinol 108-46-3  

Revised: May 30, 2018

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