Dyes that Cause Occupational Asthma Include:

bulletReactive dyes
bulletLevafix brilliant yellow E36
bulletDrimaren brilliant yellow K-3GL
bulletCibachrome brilliant scarlet 32
bulletDrimaren brilliant blue K-BL
bulletLanosol yellow 4G
bulletBlack henna
bulletMonascus ruber (food colorant)
bulletFD&C blue dye #2 (Chan-Yeung & Malo)

Textile Dyes and Allergic Contact Dermatitis

Dyes are the main skin sensitizers in the textile industry but an uncommon cause of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Azo dyes (e.g., disperse yellow 3, disperse orange 3, and disperse red 1) may cross-react with p-phenylenediamine. [Marks, p. 347-8] Dyes that cause photoirritant contact dermatitis include eosin, methylene blue, and Disperse blue 35. [Marks, p. 203] Allergic contact dermatitis in textile workers occurs mainly at the dyeing and finishing stages. Disperse dye, including Disperse Blue 124, Disperse Orange 3, Disperse Yellow 3, and Disperse Red 1, are used to dye synthetic fabrics versus reactive dyes used to dye natural fabrics. Formaldehyde resins are the main skin sensitizers at the finishing stage of textile manufacturing. [Kanerva, p. 1110] Of 70 known dye allergens, 50% are disperse, 20% reactive, and 10% acid. Disperse dyes can sensitize both before and after application of dye to the fabric; reactive dye sensitize only before application, for example, in workers mixing dyes. [Kanerva, p. 622-3]


  Revised April 10, 2007

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