Silver-white metal; [Hawley]
Vanadium compounds are found in the minerals patronite, roscoelite, carnotite and vanadinite; Used in steel alloys, x-ray machines, and catalysts; [Hawley] Used in alloys, catalysts, pigments (ceramics and glass), and in batteries; Combustion of oil and coal are the most important environmental sources; [Nordberg, p. 1349, 1363]
Less than 2% absorbed after ingestion; Primarily excreted by the kidneys; Essential mineral for some bacteria, but not known to be for humans; Reported use as a supplement by athletes and body builders; Rabbits and rats have liver injury after high-dose inhalation studies for 9-12 months; Kidney injury is observed in animals after intraperitoneal injections of vanadium; Animals dying from lethal doses have paralysis of hind limbs, respiratory depression, and convulsions; [Nordberg, p. 1347-63] See "Vanadium pentoxide."
mp = 1900 degrees C; [Hawley]
12 days for rats to eliminate from the kidneys after drinking water containing VOSO4; [Nordberg, p. 911]
Hepatoxic (a) from occupational exposure (secondary effect) or (b) in animal studies or in humans after ingestion
Industrial Processes with risk of exposure:
Activities with risk of exposure: