Aluminum production

Agent Name
Aluminum production
Major Category
Other Uses
Electorlytic reduction of alumina to aluminum; [Reference #1]
Exposures, PAH-Related
Between the late 1950s and the late 1980s, exposures decreased 4-fold at two plants in Norway (vertical stud Soderberg pot-rooms); Between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, exposures did not decrease among workers in anode manufacturing (as measured by concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine); "The exposure circumstances, especially levels of PAH in aluminium smelters, vary between industrial departments and also depend on the process used." [Reference #1]
The primary exposure is to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A Group 1 carcinogen: cancer of the bladder and lung; [Reference #1] "Bladder cancer incidence was not increased at B(a)P exposures below 40 ug/m3-yr." [Reference #2] Lower coal tar pitch volatile (CTPV) exposure occurs in prebake potrooms. "The initial epidemiologic studies of aluminum workers that reported evidence of increased risk of bladder cancer in the work-force were predominantly conducted in Soderberg smelters where exposure to CTPV was historically high. Recent follow-up studies of these worker cohorts have shown a significant reduction in the risk of bladder cancer." [PMID 25525927] "These evaluations were typically produced at a time when the available data provided a clear indication of increased cancer risk in an occupational group, but not enough information to identify a causal agent. While such broadly defined carcinogenic agents can lead to general industrial hygiene interventions, provide support to compensate exposed workers and stimulate research to identify specific causes, they have limited utility for informing specific prevention activities and may be affected by changes in process, materials and exposure levels over time." [PMID 29769352] See the process "Aluminum Producing."
Biomedical References

Exposure Assessment

Adverse Effects

IARC Carcinogen

Diseases, Processes, and Activities Linked to This Agent


Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent: