Agent Name
CAS Number
Major Category
Other Classes
Actomar; Diiodine; Eranol; Ethanolic solution of iodine; IODE [French]; Iodine; Iodine ((127)I2); Iodine Tincture USP; Iodine colloidal; Iodine crystals; Iodine solution; Iodine sublimed; Iodine tincture; Iodine-127; Iodio [Italian]; Iosan superdip; Jod [German, Polish]; Jood [Dutch]; Molecular iodine; Tincture iodine; Vistarin; [ChemIDplus] UN3495
Elements, Nonmetallic
Violet solid with a sharp, characteristic odor; [NIOSH] Iodide salts are white powders; [ACGIH]
Used as an antiseptic to kill bacteria, spores, viruses, and protozoa; Products that release iodine include iodoform, and povidone-iodine; Lugol's solution containing 5% iodine and 10% iodide in water; Amiodarone is a cardiac drug that releases iodine and may cause thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. Iodine is used in the production of dyes and photographic chemicals. [Olson, p. 274] Iodides are used in animal supplements, catalysts, inks, radiopaque dyes, drugs, disinfectants, and photography; Also used to make batteries, high-purity metals, engine fuels, iodized salt, and lubricants; [ACGIH] "Today, iodised salt is used by more than 88 per cent of the world’s population." [A National Evil Jonah Goodman on the curse of the goitre in Switzerland:]
Iodine vapor is an irritant that may cause pneumonitis and pulmonary edema. Strong iodine tincture containing 7% iodine and 5% potassium iodide in 83% ethanol is corrosive to tissue. USP iodine tincture, povidone-iodine, and iodoforms are generally not corrosive. Ingestion of iodine can cause hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. The mean lethal dose is about 2-4 grams of free iodine. [Olson, p. 274] TLV Basis = Thyroid and maternal reproductive effect; Also Fetal and neonatal damage; "Several examples of iodine sensitivity have been reported in relation to iodine-containing radiopaque materials used in diagnostic X-ray procedures. There has also been an attempt to link these reactions to similar illnesses seen after eating various types of fish, and to ascribe these to an iodine allergy. It is now clear that the reactions to iodine-containing contrast media are not immune-mediated but instead represent idiosyncratic responses to the iodine present. The similar reactions from eating fish are now believed to be allergic reactions to proteins occurring naturally in the fish and not to iodine." [ACGIH TLVs and BEIs] Iodine vapor at 0.1 ppm caused no symptoms of irritation, while 0.3 ppm made work impossible. Excess intake of iodine can cause hypothyroidism. The upper limit is 1.1 mg/day, and 150 ug/day is recommended. [ACGIH] Iodide salts are not caustic like iodine. After ingestion, hypersensitivity reactions, e.g., angioedema and urticaria, may occur; Chronic ingestion of iodide salts may cause various skin diseases, goiter, hypothyroidism, and congenital thyroid effects; [HSDB] Causes lachrymation; [ICSC]
Reference Link #1
Biomedical References

Exposure Assessment

Skin Designation (ACGIH)
0.001 ppm, inhalable fraction and vapor, (For iodides as I, TLV = 0..01 mg/m3 inhalable particulate matter)
Ceiling(OSHA) = 0.1 ppm
2 ppm
Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs
Human data: It has been reported that work was difficult but possible at 0.15 to 0.2 ppm and that work was impossible at 0.3 ppm [Flury and Zernik 1931]. Exposures to 1 ppm have been reported to be highly irritating [Casarett 1975]. Eye irritation was experienced at 1.63 ppm after 2 minutes [ACGIH 1980].
Vapor Pressure
0.233 mm Hg
Lethal Concentration
LCLo (rat) = 137 ppm/1H
Explanatory Notes
VP from HSDB;
0.1 ppm
0.5 ppm
5 ppm

Adverse Effects

Toxic Pneumonitis
Reproductive Toxin
Skin burns
ACGIH Carcinogen
Not Classifiable

Diseases, Processes, and Activities Linked to This Agent


Activities with risk of exposure: