Tin, organic compounds

Agent Name
Tin, organic compounds
CAS Number
Major Category
Tin Compounds, Organic
Appearance and odor vary depending upon the specific organic tin compound; [NIOSH]
Used as plastic stabilizers (76%), marine biocides (10%), agricultural biocides (8%), and polyurethane and silicone catalysts (5%); [Ullmann] Organotin compounds include dibutyl and tributyl tin oxides (polymer and rubber catalysts), dioctyl tin (polyvinyl chloride stabilizer), and triphenyl tin (biocide); [Rom, p. 1096]
Organotins are much less toxic when given orally than when given parenterally. In rat experiments, the critical effect is on the immune system for tributyltin compounds and on the CNS for trimethyltin and triethyltin. Toxicity decreases from the tri- to the mono-organotins. Of the trialkyltins, triethyltin and trimethytin are the most toxic. Large alkyl chains reduce toxicity, so that trioctyltin compounds are essentially nontoxic. In mice fed tributyltin oxide by gavage on days 6-15 of gestation, the LOAEL for cleft palate and skeletal abnormalities was 11.7 mg/kg. Liver injury has been reported in a pesticide applicator spraying triphenyltin acetate and in two crop-duster pilots spraying triphenyltin fungicide. [ACGIH] Regarding pregnancy risk, classified as Group D (available data not sufficient for classification); [MAK] "Whereas tributyl- and triphenyltin compounds are almost as toxic as HCN, the monoalkyl compounds have a toxicity similar to that of the inorganic tin compounds." Both tin alkyl and tin aryl compounds can cause CNS injury. Alkyl tin halides like dibutyltin dichloride and tributyltin chloride cause skin irritation, sneezing, and lacrimation. [Ullmann] Alkyl and aromatic tin compounds are neurotoxins and can be immunotoxic and genotoxic; Trisubstituted organic tin compounds are most toxic; In animal experiments, organic tin causes CNS damage, thymus atrophy, and reproductive injury; [Nordberg, p. 1241-76] Dietary intake should be restricted to <0.27 ug/kg bw/day for tributyltin, dibutyltin, dioctyltin, and triphenyltin; [European Commission] Two of the most toxic alkyl tin compounds are trimethyltin and triethyltin. Alkyl tin compounds are neurotoxins that can cause headache, lassitude, visual disturbances, and in severe cases, seizures and coma. Workers with acute organic tin poisoning may also develop severe skin irritation and evidence of renal and hepatic dysfunction. [LaDou, 4th edition, p. 434] Tributyltins, dibutyltins, and other organic tin compounds cause severe burns to the eyes and skin. Triphenyl tin has caused liver damage after occupational exposures. [Sullivan, p. 982-3] See "ORGANOMETALS."
Biomedical References

Exposure Assessment

Skin Designation (ACGIH)
0.1 mg/m3, as Sn
0.2 mg/m3, as Sn
0.1 mg/m3, as Sn
0.1 mg/m3, as Sn, inhalable fraction
25 mg/m3, as Sn
Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs
Patty [1963], Browning [1969], and Deichmann and Gerarde [1969] all indicated that the trialkyltin compounds are generally the most toxic of the organic tin compounds. The only available acute inhalation toxicity data on which to base an IDLH are given by NIOSH [1976] which cited the following mouse LCLO values for tri­n­butyltin iodide, triethyltin bromide, and tri­n­propyltin bromide, respectively: 1340 mg/m3, 1640 mg/m3, and 1650 mg/m3 [NDRC 1942]. The LCLO is the lowest concentration of a substance, other than an LC50 in air, that has been reported to cause death in man or to cause death in animals when they have been exposed for 24 hours or less.
Half Life
No reports found; [TDR, p. 1136]
Reference Link #2
will not burn

Adverse Effects

Other CNS neurotoxin
Hepatoxic (a) from occupational exposure (secondary effect) or (b) in animal studies or in humans after ingestion
Skin burns
ACGIH Carcinogen
Not Classifiable

Diseases, Processes, and Activities Linked to This Agent


Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:


Industrial Processes with risk of exposure:


Activities with risk of exposure: