Occupational asthma reported in medical workers and workers manufacturing latex gloves; [Malo] Patients allergic to latex usually have "itching or burning with or without localized contact urticaria when wearing rubber gloves." [Marks, p. 359] Allergic skin reactions to rubber gloves may be either latex sensitivity (contact urticaria) or allergic contact dermatitis from rubber chemicals. Contact urticaria develops within minutes of contact with the latex gloves while allergy to the rubber chemicals is a delayed response. [Marks, p. 293] Latex allergy can be prevented in healthcare workers by avoiding unnecessary glove use, by using non-powdered latex gloves in all workers, and by using non-latex gloves in sensitized workers. [Reference #2] Latex exposure can cause irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis (type IV delayed hypersensitivity to latex additives), and IgE-mediated latex allergy (type I responses including contact urticaria, rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, and anaphylaxis). Latex sensitization of healthcare workers, as determined by skin-prick testing, is in the range of 5% to 12% compared to 1% in unexposed workers. [ACGIH] "These results reinforce the effectiveness of the recommendations to eliminate powdered latex gloves to minimize the risk of latex allergy in the health care workforce." [PMID 21775898
] Type IV allergic contact dermatitis is usually mediated by thiurams. Other causative rubber additives are carbamates and mercaptobenzothiazoles. [PMID 22513655
] See "Thiuram mix."