Asymptomatic or mild flu-like illness; Symptoms may include fever, headache, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea,, vesicles in mouth, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy; [PPID]
In domestic animals, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes a disease similar to the more dangerous foot-and-mouth disease. A generally mild disease occurs in humans living in endemic areas. The vector for disease in animals is not known, but insects are suspected. Phlebotomine sandflies are reservoirs in enzootic areas. Infected animals transmit the disease to humans. Most human cases are subclinical. Findings in human disease include fever, myalgias, stomatitis, pharyngitis, vomiting, lymphadenopathy, and diarrhea. Seizures and meningoencephalitis have been reported. [PPID, p. 1981-2] Transmission occurs by contact with infected animals (usually cattle) and by laboratory accidents. Symptoms include conjunctivitis, fever, vomiting, headache, myalgias, chest pain, pharyngitis, and lymphadenitis. Patients may have small vesicles on the buccal mucosa and fingers. The illness usually lasts 3-6 days. Encephalitis is rare. [Harrison ID, p. 1030] Animals contract the disease from infected animals or by blood-feeding insects (sand flies and black flies). "Of primary concern in diagnosis is differentiation of vesicular stomatitis from clinically indistinguishable but much more devastating viral diseases, including foot-and-mouth disease in ruminants and swine, swine vesicular disease, and vesicular exanthema of swine. Horses are not susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease." The human disease is usually a 3-5 day, self-limited, flu-like illness. [Merck Veterinary Manual]
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