Cadmium oxide

Agent Name
Cadmium oxide
CAS Number
Major Category
Cadmium oxide formula graphical representation
Aska-Rid; Cadmium fume; Cadmium monoxide; Kadmu tlenek [Polish]; [ChemIDplus] UN2570
Cadmium Compounds, Inorganic
"Cadmium oxide (CdO) may be in the form of a white amorphous powder or as red or brown crystals: it is formed when cadmium is burned or heated." [ACGIH]
Used in silver-zinc storage batteries, Teflon, phosphors, semiconductors, silver alloys, glass, nematocides, ascaricides, catalysts, electroplating, ceramic glazes, and PVC heat stabilizers; [HSDB] Combined with an alkali-metal cyanide in baths for cadmium electroplating; [Ullmann]
May cause respiratory tract irritation and pulmonary edema; May cause kidney injury; [ICSC] Note that acute tubular necrosis, toxic pneumonitis, and COPD are caused by Cd fume at work, but not by other Cd compounds. The cadmium oxide (cadmium fume) exception is based on these statements:
1. "Cadmium oxide (CdO) may be in the form of a white amorphous powder or as red or brown crystals: it is formed when cadmium is burned or heated." [Cadmium and Inorganic Compounds. In: Documentation of TLVs and BEIs. ACGIH, p. 1]
2. "Cadmium fume is encountered in the production of alloys and in other settings. It is associated with airflow obstruction, with lung function and radiological evidence of emphysema." [Hendrick, p. 82]
3. "Since the 1950s, reports have described emphysema due to cadmium fumes, particularly in workers exposed to cadmium oxide for long periods of time." [Christiani, p. 188]
4. "It is estimated that inhalation of 5 mg/m3 cadmium oxide fume during 8 hours may be fatal." [Zenz, p. 482]
5. "Acute cadmium toxicity, which may occur occupationally with inhalation of fumes produced by welding or burning cadmium-containing metals, primarily and most severely affects the lungs. However, absorbed cadmium rapidly and preferentially accumulates in the liver and kidneys, and renal injury also may occur with acute intoxication, potentially resulting in marked proteinuria or acute tubular or cortical necrosis with renal failure." [Rosenstock, p. 573] See "Cadmium."
Biomedical References

Exposure Assessment

Cd in urine = 5 ug/g creatinine; Cd in blood = 5 ug/L; sampling time not critical; "Monitoring in blood should be preferred during the initial year of exposure and whenever changes in the degree of exposure are suspected." [ACGIH]
Skin Designation (ACGIH)
Insufficient data
0.01 mg/m3, as Cd ( 0.002 mg/m3, as Cd, respirable fraction)
0.005 mg/m3, as Cd, see 29 CFR 1910.1027
9 mg/m3, as Cd
Lethal Concentration
LC50 (mice) = 250 mg/m3/2h
Explanatory Notes
The Guide in the Emergency Response Guidebook is for "Cadmium compound."

Adverse Effects

Chronic Bronchitis
Toxic Pneumonitis
Reproductive Toxin

Diseases, Processes, and Activities Linked to This Agent


Activities with risk of exposure: