Vanadium pentoxide

Agent Name
Vanadium pentoxide
CAS Number
Major Category
Vanadium pentoxide formula graphical representation
Divanadium pentoxide; Vanadic anhydride; Vanadium oxide; Vanadium pentaoxide; [NIOSH] UN2862
Metals, Inorganic Compounds
Yellow-orange powder or dark-gray, odorless flakes dispersed in air; [NIOSH]
Vanadium has been measured in fuel oil at 250 to 400 ppm and in Bessemer slag at 10 to 15% of the weight of the total ash. [ACGIH] Flu ash from oil burning furnaces may contain more than 50% vanadium pentoxide; [ILO Encyclo: Vanadium] Vanadium exposure can also occur in workers cleaning coal furnaces, mining, and producing ferrovanadium. Vanadium is used as a polymer catalyst, dye mordant, and ceramic colorant. [LaDou, p. 481]
Chronic bronchitis has been described in boiler cleaners exposed to vanadium pentoxide. [ACGIH] Green tongue has been reported after local deposition, but it is not a sign of systemic poisoning. [Rosenstock, p. 988] The predominant symptom associated with exposure to vanadium oxide dust is bronchitis. Asthma has been documented in workers exposed to vanadium dust, vanadium pentoxide, and vanadate. [Harber, p. 505] Based on case reports, "boilermaker's bronchitis" is a form of asthma induced by exposure to vanadium in oil tank cleaners. [PMID 6332888; PMID 10086213] In lethal inhalation exposures of rabbits to particle sizes mainly <10 microns, it causes respiratory tract inflammation and pulmonary edema after 205 mg/m3 for 7 hours, but not to 77 mg/m3 for 7 hours or to 525 mg/m3 for 1 hour; [IPCS: Health and Safety Guide No. 42] Acute pneumonitis or pulmonary edema have not been reported after occupational exposure to vanadium; [Harber, Table 29-3, p. 487]
Biomedical References

Exposure Assessment

Skin Designation (ACGIH)
Insufficient data
0.05 mg/m3, inhalable fraction, as V
Ceiling(OSHA) = 0.5 mg/m3, as V2O5 (respirable dust), 0.1 mg/m3, as V2O5 (fume)
35 mg/m3, as V
Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs
Human data: Respiratory irritation following exposures to V2O5 ranging from 1 to 48 mg V/m3 has been described in workers [Sjoberg 1955]. Vanadium intoxication (i.e., rhinorrhea, sneezing, lacrimation, and sore throat) has been reported in workers exposed to concentrations of V2O5 during the workshift ranging from 10 to 33 mg/m3 [Williams 1952]. Concentrations of V2O5 exceeding 56 mg V/m3 have resulted in local respiratory effects [Vintinner et al. 1955]. Other workers exposed intermittently to 56 mg V/m3 showed no evidence of intoxication [McTurk et al. 1956].
Lethal Concentration
LC50 (rat) = 126 mg/m3/6H
Half Life
Animal studies: 40% of absorbed dose eliminated in urine within 3 days; [TDR, p. 1212]
Reference Link #2

Adverse Effects

Chronic Bronchitis
Toxic Pneumonitis
IARC Carcinogen
Possible (2b)
ACGIH Carcinogen
Confirmed Animal

Diseases, Processes, and Activities Linked to This Agent


Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:


Activities with risk of exposure: