Metal Extraction and Refining

Process Name
Metal Extraction and Refining
The first step is mineral processing which consists of ore crushing and dressing. The second step is called process metallurgy or extractive metallurgy in which the resulting minerals are reduced and refined to produce the pure metals. Extractive metallurgy includes two main recovery technologies: 1) Pyrometallurgy (smelting); and 2) Hydrometallurgy (processing in water with or without electrolysis). [ILO Encyclo: Smelting and Refining; Ullmann: Metallurgy] See the related processes "Smelting Copper or Lead," "Steel Producing," and "Aluminum Producing."

Agents Linked to This Process


Hazardous agents associated with this process: