Cadmium and compounds
Cadmium and compounds, as Cd; [ACGIH] Cadmium metal; Cadmium dust (as Cd); [NIOSH]
Cadmium Compounds, Inorganic
Metal: Silver-white, blue-tinged lustrous, odorless solid; [NIOSH]
Sources of cadmium exposure include: emissions from fossil fuel burning (>40 ng/m3 in polluted urban areas); cigarettes (1-3 ug/pack); drinking water (usually <1 ppb); and food (2-40 ppb); [ATSDR ToxProfiles] MINING, SMELTING, OR METALLURGY: Smelt & refine zinc, lead or copper ores; alloy production; reclaim scrap metal; MANUFACTURING: Nickel-cadmium batteries; pigments for plastics, glass, ceramics & paints; printing & dyeing textiles; fungicides; USING OR DISPOSING: Weld, cut, or burn; braze using cadmium-based solder; spray paint; electroplate; remove coatings;
Inhaling high concentrations of cadmium fume can cause acute pneumonitis. At levels common in factories in the past, cadmium accumulated in the kidneys of workers and caused chronic renal injury with elevated urine cadmium and protein levels. Cadmium levels in adult nonsmokers, not occupationally exposed are <0.5 ug/100 ml whole blood and <2 ug/g creatinine in urine. [Zenz, p. 482] In animal studies, high doses increase fetal loss and birth defects. [ATSDR Case Studies #29] Cadmium fume is associated with airway obstruction and emphysema. [Hendrick, p. 82] "The proximal tubule is the primary target of cadmium-induced kidney injury, but at higher exposures, the glomeruli can also be affected. . . . Measurement of cadmium in urine is the most widely used biological measure of chronic exposure to cadmium. However, it may provide no information on integrated exposure during the first year of exposure." [ACGIH] See "Cadmium oxide."
OSHA standard 1910.1027 defines exposure monitoring, respiratory protection and medical surveillance for workers exposed above the action level of 2.5 ug/m3.
Cd in urine = 5 ug/g creatinine; Cd in blood = 5 ug/L; sampling time not critical; "Blood monitoring should be preferred during the initial year of exposure and whenever changes in the degree of exposure are suspected." [ACGIH]
Skin Designation (ACGIH)
0.01 mg/m3, as Cd ( 0.002 mg/m3, as Cd, respirable fraction)
0.005 mg/m3, as Cd, see 29 CFR 1910.1027
9 mg/m3, as Cd
Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs
Human data: It has been reported that exposure to 9 mg/m3 of cadmium fume for 5 hours is a lethal dose [Beton et al. 1966]. Fatalities have resulted from exposures to concentrations estimated to be 40 to 50 mg/m3 for 1 hour [Barrett and Card 1947; Bulmer et al. 1938; Reinl 1961]. The lethal dose of thermally generated cadmium oxide fume of not more than 2,900 mgmin/m3 has been reported [Barrett and Card 1947], which is equivalent to about 85 mg Cd/m3 for 30 minutes. It has been reported that 39 mg Cd/m3 was a fatal exposure after 20 minutes [Zavon and Meadows 1970].
LC50 (rat) = 25 mg/m3/30 min
Melting Point = 610 degrees F; Boiling Point = 1409 degrees F;
Blood: 1-3 months; whole body: 10-100 years; [TDR, p. 233] Whole body half-life exceeds 15 years; [Zenz, p. 482] "The half-life of cadmium is long (10-30 years) due to accumulation of Cd in kidneys." [ACGIH]
Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:
Industrial Processes with risk of exposure:
Activities with risk of exposure: